Comprehensive guide to review schema

How to add reviews to search engine results page

This is the third article following the local business and breadcrumb schema guides and covers how to add reviews schema code into the website and to get stars to display in SERPs. We all know the “stars” can appear in your AdWords campaigns but with schema you can get the same stars in organic search which can help immensely with your click through rate (CTR).

Organic Search SERPS

To get these review stars to come up for whatever reason first of all you need to dedicate a space on your site to the review, whether it be for the product or the company. In this example WhatCar have done the following –

WhatCar stars

Hidden behind this section much like the breadcrumbs and local business is some hidden schema code.

Adding review schema to the site

Before adding the next code, make sure to attach it first to a previous div itemscope itemtype such as PRODUCT or LOCALBUSINESS. This will then allow the crawlers to know who or what these reviews belong to. With that set, let’s continue.

Review Schema 1

This division states that the following content is about reviews “AggregateRating”. The title indicates the content of the review section (it can be an image or text. This would be something along the lines of “We have been rated 4.5/5 on Review Site”.

Review Schema 2

This piece of code is the meat of the whole thing. The “Word-rating” highlights the actual wording of the score in the section. The “average” and “ratingValue” indicate the actual score with the “bestRating” highlighting the maximum mark. This bit of code indicates that the company has been rated 4.5/5.

Review Schema 3

This last section highlights how many reviews the company has recieved “666” “reviewCount” and lastly a link to the place where the reviews are stored. The / divs then close the review section off.


By adding this simple piece of code to a website search engines may show stars in your SERPs for those pages which have the code greatly increasing your CTR.

Comprehensive guide on adding local business schema to your website


How to add your business information to your website and using schema

Following on from my previous post on breadcrumb  schema this time it is local business/organization information and highlighting them using schema. This uses the same exact principals so if you’ve done the breadcrumb guide then this will be no problem.

Local business/organization schema helps crawlers identify your business information and can help with local seo and beyond. Let’s take a look at the code.

Adding the code

The code nestles in the HTML. Generally, websites should have business information in the header or the footer. Like so:

Address in footer seo

The schema code nestles in here in various stages. Below I will walk through how it is done precisely.

Local Business Schema 1

Above shows the opening division class and that the following information is about an organization. Followed by the code showing what the company name is.

Local Business Schema 2

The next section gives the property of a logo, the url of the logo and the alt description for the logo.

Local Business Schema 3

Next up is the beginning of the address. It is still included in the master section (itemtype) of “Organization” but now gets a subset (itemprop) of “postalddress” followed by the first line of address.

Local Business Schema 4

This continues to show the 2nd and 3rd line of address followed by the postcode.

Local Business Schema 5

Lastly comes the telephone, email and web url schema.

Once this is done make sure to close the < div > you have used.


To close, the local business schema can help crawlers find information about your business, its address and contact details. This code can occasionally trigger rich snippets which can help the visitor get in touch faster.

Comprehensive guide to adding Breadcrumb Schema integration


How to add Schema integration to a website’s breadcrumbs

Breadcrumbs help visitors see the hierarchy and origination of pages and to guide them through the website. It is a great way for visitors to be able to go back to a specific option. Breadcrumbs typically look like this –

Adidas Original Breadcrumbs

Schema helps make these breadcrumbs easier for search engine crawlers to understand that they are there and in what order. Often, websites with schema will also have a different look in the search engine results page.

Adidas SERP without breadcrumb schema

Above is a landing page without schema integration.

Scott Rees Whiplash SERP with Schema

Above is a landing page with schema integration.

How to add it into the HTML

Schema in general is hard coded into the HTML so that it appears on every page. The code is nestled into the breadcrumb code and is invisible to everyone, below is a guide on how it is done. It is heavily advised to check on the principles of the protocol first as schema should not be attempted by novices as it can be a lot of wasted hours figuring it out.

 Breadcrumb 1

This sets that the following is a division entitled breadcrumbs. The item is a breadcrumb the url is the following and the title for the breadcrumb is the following.

< span class=”divider breadcrumb-arrow” >//< /span > < This is a graphic “//”

This is purely a graphic.


This is exactly the same as the first breadcrumb except the opening div class (which it doesn’t need) and obviously the URL and the title correspond to the second breadcrumb.

< span class=”divider breadcrumb-arrow” >//< /span > <- This is a graphic “//”

Again, this is just a graphic.

 Breadcrumb 3

This is exactly the same as the second breadcrumb except the opening div class (which it doesn’t need) and obviously the URL and the title correspond to the third breadcrumb. It also ends by closing all the open divisions. Also note the class=”current” this is to tell the crawlers that this is current page (the page the visitor is actually on).


Breadcrumb schema is a seriously simple piece of code to add to your website. Schema may seem confusing at first but once you understand how it works you realise how easy it is.

Beginner’s Guide to SEO: Getting your content indexed


Content is useless if no one can find it. To get your content found through search engines there are 3 things you should always sort out first. – Sitemap,  get it fetched, make it crawlable. This short guide helps explain what they mean and how to do it to get your content on search engines faster.

Getting the content on Google, Bing and other search engines


Most websites have a sitemap (put /sitemap.xml at the end of the URL) that acts as a guide map for the search engine’s crawlers. The sitemap lists all the pages that are on the website that the website wants to be crawled. Pages can still be crawled without a sitemap but it makes it a lot easier for the crawlers.

If you use WordPress I recommend using Yoasts sitemaps, I’ve never had any problems with it.

Lastly, make sure that the sitemap has been submitted to Google Webmaster Tools (now Search Console).

Get it fetched

Waiting on the search engines to crawl and index your site takes and unknown amount of time, they will simply do it in their own time. However, you can get it indexed and ranking much quicker by getting it fetched. With fetching the content is usually available to the search engines within 10-15 minutes.

.Bing Submit URLSearch Console Fetch

Make it crawlable

Lastly, and perhaps most importantly is to make sure the content is crawlable. What makes it crawlable? Making sure there’s nothing blocking the content (Some JS, Flash etc) and that the page is set to INDEX as opposed to NOINDEX. When I’ve posted any new content on a new template or a website I always right click and click on ‘view source’ and manually check the HTML for any errors. If I can make sense of it then the search engines can is my rule.

Beginner’s Guide to SEO: Blog/Article Content Types


Please note this article is aimed for those with little or no knowledge of search engine optimisation and is a summary of my best practices when writing content

Content is everywhere

Content is one of the main drivers of the Google algorithm and can not be ignored. The internet is home to a vast quantity of various kinds of content and it is the search engines job to sift through it and show the searcher the best quality content that can answer their question. This is where structure, links and quality content come in. In my experience there are several different types of content vehicles out there which can serve different purposes for its creator and for the intended reader.

In this article I’ve listed the different types of content I write and what purpose they serve for me.

What are the different types of content?

Landing Page

A landing page is a page designed to rank on search engines for a specific query, the content will be written and designed in such a way that matches potential queries on SERPs. The landing page is purposefully built for a specific audience or need. An example of this is a landing page for industrial deafness which can be attached to a PPC campaign or created just for organic results. Most landing pages are designed separately from the main website.

Useful for: Ranking for specific keywords


A blog is more of a natural piece of writing in comparison to a landing page and can be more of an opinion with no commercial thought to it. Blogging is quite popular for many people who are not in the digital marketing industry as it is a way they can express themselves and their thoughts on various topics. A good blog can be a good link-earner as blog content is usually much more shareable and engaging than a landing page.

Useful for: Engaging audiences

Internal PR

An internal PR page is written to literally showcase the company’s achievements and significant events. An internal PR page can be used effectively to demonstrate the positive culture within the company and impressive feats. If you are regularly winning awards, giving promotions and hiring new staff it can leave a positive opinion for potential clients.

Useful for: Reputation management

External Opinion Blog/Guest Blogging

A guest blog is simply a piece of writing you have written which will be posted elsewhere for the usual purpose of gaining a link. This sort of method used to be wildly popular and highly effective but it is now a grey area as Google have openly said that guest blogging is not a good idea. Do not do this unless you are absolutely sure the link is worth it.

Useful for: Link building

Industry News

Industry news page is just as like it says on the tin – an article that talks about something that is going to happen, happening or about to happen in the industry. This is another good opportunity to gain some industry specific links if you post the content while the news is still fresh and people are still actively looking for the content and opinions.

Useful for: Asserting authority

Sales Event

A sales event is a run down of particular deals that are currently available. This post is written specifically to get a message across quickly and to get visitors to click through. Usually the content may be quite a lot thinner than the other content types. Designed to get social shares and to go viral.

Useful for: Drumming up quick business

Information Page

An information page is best described using examples – Cookie policies, terms & conditions page, sitemap, privacy policy, legal and so on. They are there to provide essential information without an agenda. Often these pages might be NOINDEX and certainly won’t be written to rank or convert all that much. They may seem pointless but they are essential for any website these days.

Useful for: Ticking boxes

Standard ‘every day’ Page

A standard every day page is what the vast majority of website content is. They are informational pages that describe whatever the page needs to describe. Generally, they will be written in a natural way for human consumption and may not be as SEO optimised as a landing page. A standard page needs to be content rich, engaging and accurately describe the content and be able to offer visitors a positive experience.

Useful for: Backbone of any website


To conclude, SEO’s and content writers have many types of content in their toolbox to fit a multitude of purposes. Whenever you are about to start a content campaign think to yourself

  • Who is my target audience?
  • What do I want visitors to do?
  • How can I get them to find the content?

Using one of the aforementioned content types will help you achieve your goals in a much more effective way than just writing content for the sake of it.

Beginner’s Guide to SEO: Blog/Article Structure


Please note this article is aimed for those with little or no knowledge of search engine optimisation and is a summary of my best practices when writing a basic blog or article.

Using a solid structure for SEO

How a blog or article has been structured has an effect on how well it can rank on search engines, how ‘clickable’ the article is as well as how it can appear on SERPs through the use of schema. In this short blog I will explain some of my favourite methods to structure a blog or article using very simple HTML markup.

An article/blog is much like a book and has several different markups to help the reader digest the information – examples are titles, images, references, headings and paragraphs in conjunction with good spelling and grammar.

The Title

The title (html markup <title>) should describe what the entirety of the content is about. It needs to include the correct keywords but also engaging and make people want to read it. A bad example of a title is “VANILLA ICE CREAM VANILLA ICECREAM” – although it has the keywords in there this title is non-engaging and repeats the keyword unnecessarily. A good example is “The Best Vanilla Ice Cream in Skelmersdale | John’s Dairy” – this is an excellent example as it has the keywords (Vanilla Ice cream), it’s descriptive (The best), has the location keyword (Skelmersdale) and brand keyword (John’s Dairy).

The title is one of the most important factors of an article in relation to SEO. Make sure it describes what a clicker would find if they clicked on it – and make the clickers want to click on it.

Search engines may truncate a title if it is longer than 55 characters so the optimal length should be in the region of 50-60.

Meta description

Think of the meta description as the blurb of a book, if the title and cover picture hasn’t grabbed their attention then perhaps the meta description can. The meta description should accurately describe the content in an engaging manner – write it in such a way that it is relevant to the searcher and it will offer them what they are looking for in terms of information and content.

A meta description should be less than 160 characters to avoid being truncated.


A heading (html markup <hx> replace x with a number 1+> works in a similar way to a title, but instead of describing what the whole article is about a heading describes what the next section of content is about. There are differences between headings in terms of prominence and you can describe this to the crawlers using numbers; a H1 is main heading, H2 subheading and so on. In terms of SEO anything more than a H1 has little if any impact.

Make sure to always have just one H1 which is keyword rich and a couple of H2’s, the SEO value decreases rapidly after H2 but they can still be used for visitor experience.

Word Count

Now this is where it really comes down to my own personal opinion. I am in the ‘content is king’ camp and champion long, in depth and rich content. I find that a sweet spot for a really good piece of article that ranks well and gets links has over 1000 words and often goes over 2000 and beyond. However, this is not to say you should waffle on as quality is much more important than quantity.

I would always recommend to use your own judgement when you have worked in SEO for a while but to ensure that a page or article has at least 750 words in it as a good starting point.

Keyword Density

Keyword density used to be an excellent way to rank on SERPs in the olden days but not so much at time of writing. My best tip for density is to write the article fully without tracking first and then use a KW density tool afterwards. Google likes the content to be written for humans and not for the robots but there’s no harm in making sure your point gets across, just not too much.

The KW tool I use can be found here.


When I write content I make sure to write for my target demographic. Before writing the content think “Who do I want to read this? Who are my customers?” and then use appropriate language and words that suit them, Writing for academics? Make sure the content suits that. Writing for children? Make it easy.

I use two tools to help with this – Readability Score and Hemingway Editor.


Images help with SEO but more importantly in my opinion, the user experience. Images can bring the article more alive with the use of infographics, charts, explanations or just to show what you mean through the text. The SEO opportunity with images are in the title, description and alt-text of the image. The words included in the image meta-data can contribute to the page ranking and the image itself ranking.

For your images make sure to use an appropriate title, description and ensure that alt-text is there. Google cares about user experience and for people who are partially sighted or bling the meta data helps them a great deal to deduce what the image displays.


Writing a credible piece of writing should always involve referencing your work. If you are writing a piece that has used external information then make sure to link to that relevant information. This will boost your credibility with the reader but also with the search engines. For example, if your writing piece is related to the medical industry then a link pointing towards a medical related website makes perfect sense to both the reader and the crawlers.

A crude example of a structure for a blog or article


To conclude, having an article have a solid structure can give it the best start in ranking and gaining some links. Titles can help improve the CTR (Click-through rates) as will the description, the headings and images can improve visitor duration and lower the bounce rate. However, the quality of the content is still much more important than all these combined so make sure that that is where most of your time is spent.

12 Weeks of Bulking

To skip to the spreadsheet click here

You can find my food diary here

I want to bulk

I want to bulk, and I want to do it in a way that fits my lifestyle and my budget. But doesn’t everyone? I have for the majority of my life been underweight and little muscle. I have got my weight to healthy now and put on a bit of muscle but as with most people I want a bit more – having done my research it would appear that cutting would be pointless, maintaining wouldn’t give me anything so bulking it is.

I am not sure at what point I want to stop bulking but I am certain that I would just know when, or if, I get there.

However, I know the theory of bulking and I now need to put it in practice.

What is this bulking article about?

Weightlifting, bodybuilding and general fitness is popular and it is becoming more and more so. With increased popularity there is always an opportunity to make some money and I do believe that a lot of trainers, gyms, supplement makers and all associated are striking while the iron is hot – I am not begrudging them for doing it but it does make it much more complicated about what routine to do, what to eat, when to sleep and a whole lot more.

Steroids were another factor to do this experiment – you see people ripped to shreds pretending to be natural or ‘natty’ which gives people a false sense of optimism “That guys is natural and looks at how ripped he is! I’m gonna do his workout and use his supplements!” which is wrong. I am not shaming people for taking steroids, but i do think they should state if they take them or not before taking people’s money. I want to do this naturally and to see what my gains are so that other people in the same boat can see what can be possible (or even not possible) without juicing.

This article is not a guide and it is not advice, this is simply a log of my efforts following a set routine, my day to day diet and statistics on improvements from size, strength to general well being. If you’re looking for a guide on bulking that tells you what to do from a professional, this is not it.

So, to round off; the article is a log of my efforts on a bulking plan, diet, which supplements I used and what I gained.

A quote by Burningheart on his Work out of the week on


About me

When I ventured into lifting and bulking originally it was a lot to take in and it wasn’t a case of going to the gym, lifting some weights and hey presto there are my muscles. I researched what lifts to do, what to eat and what supplements to take and I had a go and I was quite pleased with the results in the 3 months I did it.

I never recorded my initial measurements but approximately I gained around 6-8 lbs of muscle. These were more than likely ‘noob gains’ and in actuality I would have gained 4 lbs or less after this period. However, I enjoyed the experience and the gains made me want to take it up a notch – I had already changed my diet around and added some more supplements but it was not as good as it can be with changes to the diet.

I am 27, a Digital Marketing Executive Mon-Fri and it is a sedentary role my gym work gets done in the evenings and weekends. I am in a committed relationship, a mortgage and all the responsibilities of an adult. During my childhood and young adulthood I was fairly active and worked as a farmer for 4 years for my father. I don’t want to mislead anyone in anyway – I have done physical work in the past and my work demands an analytical mind so I have some prior experience in both areas for this log. I don’t want anyone to assume I am doing this stuff for the very first time. Although I am a beginner I’m not that much of a beginner.

I am quite comfortable in the weights room and I have done my research on supplements, nutrition and diet. I am fully aware of the basic theory of how to build muscle.

The Bulking Routine

The bulking workout I will be utilizing is the one posted here by Burningheart because of of how detailed and comprehensive it is. The detail in the routine, intensity, diet and supplementary advice is simply outstanding. Not only that, the routine itself is fairly simple and I have done many of the lifts in the past. I will be following this as closely as I can with whatever is available in my local gym, if I can’t do it I will replace with a similar lift.

I have also added a couple of addition stuff as it seemed to lack a bit, particularly for the chest.

The routine also goes on for 12 weeks (recommended) and thus gives a greater scope for trial and error.

Although the routine states to train Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday it is essential for success that it adapts to me and not the other way around – the likelihood is it will be Wednesday, Thursday, Saturday and Sunday so that the spacing between days stays the same, however I will adhere to the rest periods.

I will increase the weight as time goes by to ensure my body keeps getting challenged. With a 12 week workout I would assume my strength would increase consistently.

How will the Bulking Routine it be logged

I am a big fan of a good spreadsheet and I will be using a Google spreadsheet to monitor the resistance in my lifts and to monitor progress. Every single session will be logged.

The Bulking Diet

The bulking diet will be the most challenging as I am very lazy and never plan ahead, however I have done my research and I am aware of a few recipes and will do everything I can to adhere to it. However, my main concern is to hit my macros and get the protein I need at the very least. I also use a couple of supplements to give me that extra boost, at time of writing they are –

Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard Whey

Optimum Nutrition Creatine Monohydrate

Optimum Nutrition Opti-Men 

Kinetica ZMA Active*

Fish Oil

*May not use as I don’t have trouble sleeping

Supplements under consideration at the moment are Casein and D-Pol – Casein is more a budget issue as supplements every month are a drain and the D-Pol was for the reviews, however I am not convinced of what the D-Pol can actually do and the reviews look very suspect.

I don’t work for Optimum Nutrition nor have I been asked to specifically use them, I simply went for the ones people generally praised and stuck with the brand. I like the stuff they’ve done and I don’t have any complaints so why use another I say.

How will the Bulking Diet be monitored?

This is one of the easiest to monitor. I have been calorie counting with My Fitness Pal for months. I will simply be scanning what I eat and measure my nutrition and macros with this. This will also produce graphs and charts for me and can be used to cross reference with the Bulking Routine quite easily.

You can find my food diary here

And also on the spreadsheet – here

Bulking Gains

The whole point of bulking is to get some gains. Although I don’t know what sort of gains I will get with this experiment but the workout routine mentioned I should expect..

“For an experienced weightlifter, you can expect around 1 pound of lean muscle mass per two weeks. As for a new lifter, one can expect 1 pound of lean muscle mass per week.”

I am not sure where I stand with these two so we’ll assume I should get around 6 lbs of muslce by the end of the program IF I eat according to the guide and go into the routine with INTENSITY AND GOOD FORM.

So, my assumptions are:

I will gain 6lbs on muscle mass by week 12 if –

  • I keep to the diet and macros
  • I get 7-9 hours of good sleep
  • Complete the routine with intensity, good form and increase the resistance often

How will I monitor my Bulking Gains?

This is probably the easiest to monitor- I will measure my weight and dimensions (I recently changed to a Gym that provides this service). So the key ones I am looking out for are obviously weight and body fat%; if my weight goes up and my body fat % reduces or stay the same it’s safe to say that it is lean muscle mass (Possibly water retention, but measurements over 12 weeks should normalise them)

When does it start?

I have started as of 27th of December.